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Individuals’ medical traits
The imply edema index within the low, center, and excessive tertiles was 0.377 ± 0.006 (interval, 0.362–0.384), 0.390 ± 0.003 (interval, 0.385–0.395), and 0.402 ± 0.006 (interval, 0.396–0.417), respectively. The sufferers within the excessive tertile have been older than these within the different tertiles, and the proportion of male intercourse was lowest within the excessive tertile (Desk 1). The CCI rating was biggest within the excessive tertile, and eGFR, calcium, and albumin ranges have been decrease within the excessive tertile than within the low tertile. The phosphorus and i-PTH ranges have been better within the excessive tertile than within the low tertile.
Affiliation between edema index and sarcopenia elements
Pearson’s correlation coefficients with edema index have been − 0.343 for SMI, − 0.492 for HGS, and − 0.331 for GS, respectively (P < 0.001 for 3 indicators). Partial correlation coefficients with the edema index have been − 0.191 for SMI, − 0.337 for HGS, and − 0.278 for GS, respectively (P = 0.024 for SMI, P < 0.001 for HGS, and P = 0.001 for GS). Univariate and multivariate linear regression evaluation confirmed that the edema index as a steady variable was inversely related to the SMI, HGS, and GS (Desk S1). The AUROCs of edema index for sarcopenia have been 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67–0.85; P = 0.010, Fig. 1A) in males and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.60–0.85; P = 0.004, Fig. 1B) in ladies. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting sarcopenia have been 83.3% and 69.8%, respectively, in males and 87.5% and 65.1%, respectively, in ladies.
For males, the AUROCs have been 0.75 (95% CI, 0.65–0.83), 0.79 (95% CI, 0.70–0.87), 0.54 (95% CI, 0.43–0.64), 0.55 (95% CI, 0.45–0.65), and 0.56 (95% CI, 0.46–0.66) for age, CCI rating, eGFR, albumin, and i-PTH, respectively. For ladies, the AUROCs have been 0.76 (95% CI, 0.62–0.87), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.54–0.81), 0.64 (95% CI, 0.49–0.77), 0.65 (95% CI, 0.50–0.77), and 0.54 (95% CI, 0.40–0.68) for age, CCI rating, eGFR, albumin, and i-PTH, respectively. The AUROCs of the edema index for sarcopenia have been biggest among the many six variables, aside from the CCI rating in males and age in ladies. Moreover, we calculated age-adjusted AUROCs utilizing the kernel-based estimation of the covariate-adjusted ROC curve. The age-adjusted AUROCs have been 0.69 in males and 0.61 in ladies, and the values decreased in comparison with these with out adjustment.
Univariate analyses revealed that SMI was decrease in sufferers within the excessive tertile than in these within the low tertile (Fig. 2). HGS was lowest in excessive tertile, and GS was biggest within the low tertile. Univariate logistic regression evaluation confirmed that the excessive tertile for predicting sarcopenia had an odds ratio of 6.03 (P = 0.004) in comparison with low or center tertiles (Desk 2). The outcomes of multivariate analyses have been much like these of the univariate analyses. Moreover, we carried out logistic regression analyses utilizing categorized variables to keep away from the impact of collinearity and these have been comparable with these from steady variables (Desk S2).
Subgroup analyses in accordance with age, intercourse, or CKD phases
We divided the sufferers into two age teams. For these aged < 65 years, three indicators in univariate and multivariate confirmed important affiliation with the edema index (Desk 3). No statistical significances have been obtained in these aged ≥ 65 years on multivariate analyses. On analyses by intercourse, HGS and GS have been related to edema index on multivariate evaluation in males, however not in ladies. The numbers of sufferers in accordance with the CKD stage have been 36 (24.5%), 50 (34%), 53 (36.1%), and eight (5.4%) for G3a, G3b, G4, and G5, respectively. The proportions of sufferers with sarcopenia in accordance with CKD phases have been 2 (5.6%), 4 (8.0%), 4 (7.5%), and 4 (50%) for G3a, G3b, G4, and G5, respectively (P = 0.001). Pearson’s correlation coefficients with the edema index are proven in Desk S3. The proportion of sufferers with sarcopenia elevated because the CKD stage superior. Subgroup analyses in accordance with CKD phases confirmed that the associations between edema index and sarcopenia-related indicators have been usually inverse; nonetheless, the affiliation with SMI was comparatively weaker than that with HGS or GS. Statistical significance for correlations was not obtained in G5; nonetheless, the traits have been much like these from different teams.
Affiliation between edema index and HR-QoL scales
Amongst SF-36 scales, PF, RP, RE, OHR, PCS, and MCS have been related to tertiles of edema index, and these scales have been biggest within the low tertile (Desk S4). Amongst kidney disease-specific scales, symptom/issues, work standing, cognitive perform, high quality of social interplay, sexual perform, social help, and OHR have been related to tertiles of edema index, and all scales excluding symptom/issues have been biggest within the low tertile.
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